19th European Congress on Alternatives to Animal Testing, September 20-23 2015, University of Linz, Austria

Poster sessions

(v. 15.09.2015)

Poster session I
Monday, 20.09.2015
1. Multi-Organ-Chips
In vitro model of hair follicle for high-through-put in vitro screening   Beren Atac, Tobias Grix, Isabel Ruetschle, Gerd Lindner, Reyk Horland, Roland Lauster, Uwe Marx
2. Stem Cells
Oocyte-like cell differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells by two-step cultivation   Soghra Bahmanpour, Nehleh Zareifard, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Tahereh Esmaeilpour
Mechanisms of vasculogenesis in 3D fibrin matrices mediated by the interaction of adipose-derived stem cells and endothelial cells   Wolfgang Holnthoner, Pablo Hofbauer, Sabrina Rohinger, Susanne Wolbank, Heinz Redl
iPS-derived human 3D cardiac microtissues to assess cardiac toxicity   Jens Kelm, Victor Zamora Rodriguez, Irina Agarkova, Philippe Beauchamp, Christian Zuppinger, Godfrey Smith
An in vitro model for hepatocyte-like cell differentiation from Wharton’s jelly derived-mesenchymal stem cells by cell-base aggregates   Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Maryam Borhan-Haghighi, Maryam Ayatollahi, Zahra Vojdani
The effect of fetal liver extract and 3D culture on Hhepatogenic capability of human Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stem cells co-culturing with endothelial cells   Zahra Vojdani, Zahra Khodabandeh, Tahereh Talaei-Khozani, Soghra Bahmanpour
3. 3D Models
Reconstructed Human Epidermis (RhE) monitoring via the IMOLA-IVD   Frank Alexander, Joachim Wiest
Microheated thermoresponsive cell culture substrate for spatiotemporal control of cell growth   Laura Behm, Michael Kirschbaum, Claus Duschl
Development of a shipping protocol for human hemicornea constructs to facilitate their widespread use in in vitro drug absorption studies   Nicole Beißner, Michaela Zorn-Kruppa, Stephan Reichl
Using human organotypic glioblastoma tissue slices for therapy improvement   Susann Haehnel, Felicitas Merz, Henry Oppermann, Juergen Meixensberger, Frank Gaunitz, Ingo Bechmann
3D cultivation and differentiation of human neural progenitor cells in a biomimetic functionalized hydrogel matrix as a model for developmental neurotoxicity testing   Christine Hellwig, Jenny Baumann, Ellen Fritsche
Mechanistic studies on signaling pathways contributing to human neural progenitor cell migration   Christiane Hohensee, Susanne Giersiefer, Ellen Fritsche
An in vitro reconstructed normal human corneal tissue model for corneal drug delivery studies of ophthalmic formulations   Yulia Kaluzhny, Miriam Kinuthia, Laurence d’Argembeau-Thornton, Victor Karetsky, Patrick Hayden, Silvia Letasiova, Mitchell Klausner
Omics analysis of human liver microtissues grown over 4 weeks: Implications for studies of liver functions   Jens Kelm, Simon Messner, Lisa Fredriksson, Claudia Escher, Magdalena Bober, Katrin Roessger, Wolfgang Moritz, Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg
Generation of in vitro skin models using ORS cells   Anna Löwa, Nada Charbaji, Christopher Wolff, Sarah Hedtrich
Identification of transcriptome signatures and biomarkers specific for migration-inhibiting potential developmental toxicants in human neural crest cells   Giorgia Pallocca, Marianna Grinberg, Tanja Waldmann, Jörg Rahnenführer, Magrit Henry, Agapios Sachinidis, Marcel Leist
Automation of production and quality control of a reconstructed human epidermis   Freia Schmid, Thomas Schwarz, Lena Schober, Moriz Walter, Michael Klos, Wolfgang Schuberthan, Andrea Traube, Andreas Traube, Jan Hansmann, Heike Walles, Florian Groeber
A novel assay for evaluating wound healing in a full-thickness in vitro human skin model   Katarina Sebova, Michael Bachelor, Mitchell Klausner, Patrick Hayden, Jonathan Oldach, Gina Stolper, Max Li 
Phenotypic and biomarker evaluation of zebrafish larvae as alternative model to predict mammalian hepatotoxicity    Sandra Verstraelen, Bernard Peers, Walid Maho, Karen Hollanders, Sylvie Remy, Pascale Berckmans, Adrian Covaci, Hilda Witters
Generation of three-dimensional cortical tissues – an innovative cell culture model for toxicity testing, drug development and basic research    Christopher Weidner, Konrad Gulich, Birgitta Slawik, Elisa Opitz, Gilbert Schönfelder, Andrea Seiler
4. International Progress in 3Rs' research & Global Cooperation on Implementing the 3Rs
The importance of understanding drivers of classification in vivo for selection of chemicals used in the development and evaluation of in vitro serious eye damage/eye irritation assays: Cosmetics Europe analysis   João Barroso, Nathalie Alepee, Els Adriaens, Magalie Cluzel, Ann De Smedt, Jalila Hibatallah, Martina Klaric, Karsten Mewes, Marion Millet, Uwe Pfannenbecker, Marie Templier, Pauline McNamee
The Danish 3R-Center   Tom Bengtsen 
The Interspecies Database and the Humane Endpoints website: essential tools to implement the 3Rs   Maite van Gerwen, Coenraad Hendriksen, Ilse Naus, Jan van der Valk, Esther Brandon
Training as a means to hasten the implementation of 3Rs methods for cosmetics: A case study of China   Erin Hill, Quanshun Zhang, Rodger Curren
The Lush Prize – Rewarding innovative animal-free science around the world   Rebecca Ram
Do scientists have an adequate overview of global 3R resources?   Adrian Smith, Tim Allen, Karina Smith, Øyvind Wærenskjold, Bente Bergersen, Siri Knudsen, Anton Krag, Anne Ramstad
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5. QSAR & Read Across
Predicting protein targets for chemical toxins using molecular similarity search, in silico docking and in vitro validation   Yaroslav Chushak, Jeanette Frey, Camilla Mauzy, Jeffery Gearhart
Integration of in vitro and in silico approaches to characterize endocrine activities of zearalenone and metabolites   Veronika Ehrlich, Luca Dellafiora, Julie Mollergues, Chiara Dall’Asta, Patrick Serrant, Maricel Marin-Kuan, Elena Lo Piparo, Benoit Schilter, Pietro Cozzini
Accessibility of published QSAR models: ecotoxic endpoints   Iiris Kahn, Priit Ahte, Sulev Sild, Uko Maran
A model for predicting human liver toxicity, based on molecular fragments   Fabiola Pizzo, Anna Lombardo, Emilio Benfenati
6. Risk assessment based on the AOP concept
A multi-targeted in vitro approach to predict the potential risks to human health and ecosystems during exposure to mixtures (CER 16 05 06*) from disposal of wastes   Anna Maria Bassi, Chiara Scanarotti, Stefania Vernazza, Jenia Danailova, Maria Adelaide Pronzato, Susanna Alloisio, Antonio Novellino
Characterization of molecular and cellular effects of thyroid hormone within an AOP frame for thyroid hormone disruption using human and murine neural progenitor cells   Katharina Dach, Susanne Giersiefer, Farina Bendt, Ulrike Huebenthal, Heike Heuer, Ellen Fritsche
Evaluation of developmental neurotoxicity triggered by N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists based on the Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) concept   Anna Price, Sharon Munn, Magdalini Sachana
In house validation of the bovine corneal opacity and permeability assay and EpiOcular™ eye irritation test   Jo Vinall, Frank Toner, Clive Roper
7. Repeated Dose Toxicity & Other Toxicological Endpoints
Conversion of the draft OECD guideline for the testing of chemicals: The Cytosensor Microphysiometer Test Method   Sebastian Eggert, Frank Alexander, Joachim Wiest
Effects of glycine and taurine on cell viability and function of cryopreserved primary rat hepatocytes   Omid Farshad, Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Aminreza Akbarizadeh
Biotransformation of 2,4-toluenediamine by human skin and reconstructed tissues   Lisa Grohmann, Daniel Becker, Jörg Rademann, Nan Ma, Monika Schaefer-Korting, Günther Weindl
Evaluation of inflammatory and genotoxic effects of smokeless tobacco using a human organotypic model of oral epithelium   Patrick Hayden, Jonathan Oldach, Bridget Breyfolgle, Mitchell Klausner, Michael Bachelor, Silvia Letasiova, Helena Kandarova
Health safety of food contact paper evaluated by in vitro toxicological methods   Kristina Kejlova, Adam Vavrous, Marketa Dvorakova, Jitka Sosnovcova, Dagmar Jirova
Replacing rodent models for investigating the influence of the microbiota upon innate immune responses and resistance to pathogens   Andrew King, Rachel Lawrence, Imelda McGonnell
Standardization of the experimental conditions leads to reliable and relevant predictions of the photo-toxic effects in vitro   Alzbeta Líšková, Soňa Jantová, Tatiana Milasová, József Bakos, Milan Mikula, Helena Kandarova
Systematic literature review on in vitro and alternative Developmental Neurotoxicity (DNT) testing methods   Stefan Masjosthusmann, Alm Henrik, Jenny Baumann, Lieve Geerts, Helen Håkansson, Hilda Witters, Ellen Fritsche
CON4EI: Consortium for in vitro Eye Irritation testing strategy   An Van Rompay, Els Adriaens, Nathalie Alepee, Helena Kandarova, Przemyslaw Fochtman, Katarzyna Gruszka, Agnieszka Drzewiecka, Joke Lenoir, Jamin A. Sr. Willoughby, Robert Guest, Sandra Verstraelen
Hydra offers potential as a simple alternative model organism for ecotoxicology and environmental genomics assessment   Mohammed Zeeshan, Anbazhagan Murugadas, Panayappurath Ibrahim, Ramasamy Babu Rajendran, Mohammad Akbarsha
8. Inhalation
Influence of brake wear particle size on the biological impact using a 3D human epithelial tissue barrier model   Hana Barosova, Savvina Chortarea, Jana Kukutschova, Martin J.D. Clift, Miroslav Vaculik, Alke Petri-Fink, Barbara Rothen-Rutishauser
Induced cytotoxicity revealed species diversity of rat and human lung tissue by repeated chemical exposure   Olga Danov, Sylvia E. Escher, Katrin Schröder, David Vorgrimmler, Peter Braubach, Danny Jonigk, Gregor Warnecke, Armin Braun, Katherina Sewald
In vitro induction of airway goblet cell hyperplasia by Th2 cytokines, viral exposure or cigarette smoke   Patrick Hayden, R. Jackson, Amy Hunter, Silvia Letasiova, Helena Kandarova
Establishment of in-vitro models for the study of repeated exposure to toxicants by the respiratory route   Kristin Öhlinger, Claudia Meindl, Eleonore Fröhlich
9. Skin Sensitization
Reconstructed human epidermis test methods for skin corrosion endpoint: How can changes in prediction models improve final predictions?   Bertrand Desprez, João Barroso, Claudius Griesinger, Helena Kandarova, Nathalie Alepee, Horst Fuchs
Determination of contact sensitization potential of chemicals using in vitro reconstructed normal human epidermal model EpiDerm: impact of the modality of application    Silvia Letasiova, Valentina Galbiati, Helena Kandarova, Emanuela Corsini, Dagmar Lehmeier, Helge Gehrke
Intra- and interlaboratory validation of LuSens: a reporter gene-cell line to detect keratinocyte activation by skin sensitizers   Tzutzuy Ramirez, Alexandra Aumann, Tina Woehrle, Amber Edwards, Kimberly G Norman, Cindy Ryan, Markus Fehr, Florence Burleson, Leslie Foertsch, Xiaohong Wang, Frank Gerberick, Nadine Stein, Annette Mehling, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Robert Landsiedel
Application of in chemico and in silico methods to address protein-binding, the molecular initiating event of skin sensitization    Daniel Urbisch, Naveed Honarvar, Susanne N Kolle, Annette Mehling, Tzutzuy Ramirez, Wera Teubner, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Robert Landsiedel
Are xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities in cells relevant for skin sensitization?   Daniel Urbisch, Eric Fabian, Daniela Vogel, Tzutzuy Ramirez, Susanne N Kolle, Matthias Becker, Bennard van Ravenzwaay, Robert Landsiedel 
Assessing skin sensitization hazard in mice and men using non-animal test methods   Daniel Urbisch, Annette Mehling, Katharina Guth, Tzutzuy Ramirez, Naveed Honarvar, Susanne N Kolle, Robert Landsiedel, Joanna Jaworska, Petra Kern, Frank Gerberick, Andreas Natsch, Roger Emter, Takao Ashikaga, Masaaki Miyazawa, Hitoshi Sakaguchi
Dermal sensitizers - identification and potency ranking using IVSA and epiCS®   Dirk Weisensee, Oliver Engelking 
10. Efficacy & Safety Testing
EU Placentology Network for chemicals safety testing in pregnancy – EU-PlaNet   Christiane Albrecht, Paul Brownbill, Martina Ceckova, Igor Chernyavsky, Gernot Desoye, Sophie Gil, Stefan Hansson, Lisbeth Knudsen, Lopa Leach, Rohan Lewis, Udo Markert, Line Mathiesen, Jana Pastuschek, Andre Schmidt, Henning Schneider, Christian Wadsack
The implementation problem: barriers to and opportunities for the use of non-animal veterinary vaccine potency tests   Jeffrey Brown, Christopher Faßbender, Amy Clippinger, Gilly Stoddart
In vitro evaluation of photoprotective efficacy of commercial sunscreens by biological parameters   Sônia Aparecida Figueiredo, Dayane Moraes, Michelle Andrade, Maria José Vieira Fonseca
Enhancing effect of alternating electric fields of different frequencies on biological activity of 5FU, HuIFN-αN3, Royal Jelly and combinations of them on CaCo-2 cells   Bratko Filipič, Lidija Gradisnik, Miloš Đonović, France Pavlovčič, Wadi Zoghbi, Dunja Exel Gregorič, Časlav Daničič, Klemen Rihar
Isolated human intervertebral disc cells as a useful platform for in vitro toxicology tests   Lidija Gradisnik, Tomaz Velnar
An animal-free batch testing method for alum-adjuvanted veterinary rabies vaccines   Verena Jakel, Karin Duchow, Beate Krämer, Max Bastian
Characterization of stably transfected hek-293 cells expressing uptake transporters using fluorescent substances   Jia Jia, Claudia Garve, Markus Keiser, Dieter Runge, Anett Ullrich
B-13 progenitor-derived hepatocytes (B-13/H cells) as a model for lipid storage disorders   Alistair Leitch, Philip Probert, Matthew Wright
Cryopreserved human hepatocytes and IdMOC experimental system for the evaluation of human drug properties   Albert Li
Testing of differentiation and cytotoxicity to evaluate the safety of a Chinese herbal medicine extracts used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis   Lu Li, Andrea Haase, Ling Cheng, Clara BS Lau, Chi Chiu Wang, Ping Chung Leung, Horst Spielmann, Monika Schaefer-Korting, Andreas Luch
A new tool for in vitro sunscreen quality control   Dayane Moraes, Sônia Figueiredo, Michelle Andrade, Maria José Vieira Fonseca 
Micellar liquid chromatography as an alternative for in vivo and expensive in vitro tests commonly used in prediction of human intestinal absorption   Dina Shokry, Laura Waters, Gareth Parkes
Characterization of transporter activities in fresh isolated primary hepatocytes of different species by using fluorescent substrates   Anett Ullrich, Jia Jia, Dieter Runge
InvertTox presents its new in vivo alternative testing strategy for predictive toxicology and efficacy screenings: the NeoMac assays   Maxime Willems, Els Adriaens, An-Sofie Stevens, Karen Smeets, Jean-Paul Remon
Poster session II
Tuesday, 21.09.2015
11. Nano-Toxicology
Nanoparticles at the human placental barrier: Advancing in vitro placenta models using co-cultures and mimicking the 3D and/or dynamic microenvironment   Tina Buerki, Carina Muoth, Leonie Aengenheister, Melanie Kucki, Pius Manser, Wolfram Jochum, Peter Wick
In vitro effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on human intestinal Caco-2 cells   Francesca Caloni, Paride Mantecca, Aharon Gedanken, Isabella De Angelis, Nicholas Bellitto, Ilana Perelshtein, Cristina Cortinovis
Toxicological effects of copper oxide nanoparticles on Caco-2 intestinal cells   Francesca Caloni, Marco Albonico, Paride Mantecca, Aharon Gedanken, Nicholas Bellitto, Maria Chiara Perego, Ilana Perelshtein, Cristina Cortinovis
Safety evaluation of nanosilver using reconstructed human GIT tissues    Marketa Dvorakova, Kristina Kejlova, Lucie Kasparova, Daniel Krsek, Dagmar Jirova 
Cytochrome C assay as a tool for determining ranking for nanomaterials surface reactivity   Muhammad-Adeel Irfan, Wendel Wohlleben, Robert Landsiedel
NanoE-Tox – in-depth database on ecotoxicity of nanomaterials   Katre Juganson, Angela Ivask, Irina Blinova, Monika Mortimer, Kaja Kasemets, Anne Kahru
Hydra, a suitable candidate for risk assessment of nanomaterials   Anbazhagan Murugadas, Mohammed Zeeshan, K Thamaraiselvi, Mohammad Akbarsha
Development of best practice in nanosafety assessment via the QualityNano Research Infrastructure   Inge Nelissen, Andrea Haase, Anna Salvati
Localization and internal dose of CeO2 nanoparticles in an airway epithelium cell model in comparison to A549 lung cells   Sergey Tatarenko, Harald Jungnickel, Jutta Tentschert, Peter Laux, Andreas Luch 
The activation of macrophages in co-culture initialised by metal oxide nanoparticles    Tiina Titma 
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12. Disease Models
In vitro characterization of monoamine oxidases, steroid-5α-reductases, sulfotransferases and glutathione S-transferases in excised human skin and reconstructed skin   Lisa Grohmann, Monika Schaefer-Korting, Günther Weindl
Assessment of the wound healing effect of selected flavonoids on in vitro irritation model    Jana Juráňová, Jana Franková, Bohumil Zálešák, Jitka Ulrichová
A human in vitro model for studying cholestasis   Yeda Kaminski, Sebastian Klein, Elmar Heinzle, Fozia Noor
First successful therapy with a new retinal ischemia organ culture model    Patricia Klemm, Jose Hurst, Matthias Blak, Maximilian Schultheiss, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmidt, Martin S. Spitzer, Sven Schnichels
A porcine retina organ culture model to study neuronal degeneration    Sandra Kühn, Jose Hurst, Adelina Jashari, Kathrin Ahrens, Marc-Ilan Wunderlich, Burkhard Dick, Sven Schnichels, Stephanie Joachim
Modeling of early intestinal infection events of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli using an in vitro system with porcine jejunal tissue   Ulrike Lodemann, Salah Amasheh, Judith Radloff, Martina Kern, Astrid Bethe, Lothar Wieler, Robert Pieper, Jürgen Zentek, Joerg R. Aschenbach
Cigarette smoke and cigarette smoke condensate induce cell injury and early biomarkers of inflammation in human and rodent precision-cut lung slices    Helena Obernolte, Detlef Ritter, Jan Knebel, Peter Braubach, Danny Jonigk, Armin Braun, Katherina Sewald
Brain melanoma metastasis cell line and clones - A model system for in vitro research    Beate Rinner, Katharina Meditz, Marie-Therese Frisch, Dagmar Kolb-Lenz, Ellen Heitzer, Birgit Reininger-Gutmann, Helmut Schaider, Bernadette Liegl-Atzwanger, Sabrina Riedl, Dagmar Zweytick
An in vitro reconstructed psoriasis tissue model for evaluation of drug therapeutics   Katarina Sebova, Mitchell Klausner, Seyoum Ayehunie, C. Hedin, Annie Cataldo, M. Spratt, Patrick Hayden
A human ex vivo model to investigate cigarette smoke-induced lung tissue damage    Sophie Seehase, Karoline I. Gaede, Christian Kugler, Ekkehard Vollmer, Torsten Goldmann
Influence of CD4+ T cell migration into a filaggrin deficient skin model in terms of skin barrier proteins and barrier function   Leonie Wallmeyer, Christopher Wolff, Sarah Hedtrich
14. EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the Protection of Animals Used for Scientific Purposes & 15. Ethics & Legal Issues
Accomplishments and next steps for the roundtable on science and welfare in laboratory animal use   Lida Anestidou
The official German “AnimalTestInfo” – A role model for more transparency on animal experiments through NTPs?    Isabel Engelhardt, Irmela Ruhdel, Kristina Wagner
AniMatch – An innovative approach to reduce lab animal usage addressing article 18 of the EU directive 2010/63/EU    Annemarie Lang, Benjamin Zimmer, Resa Ebadi, Jan Saam 
Numbers do not lie? Why the lives of ”surplus animals” need to count, too    Kristina Wagner 
Analysis of effects of the adoption of alternative methods on the number of animals used for eye irritation in the European Union   Joachim Wiest, Kristina Wagner, Roman Kolar, Irmela Ruhdel
16. Refinement
Refinement of orofacial surgical experiments in the Göttingen minipig™: morphometry of the mandibula by 3D-computed tomography   Giuliano Mario Corte, Johanna Plendl, Hana Hünigen, Stefan M. Niehues
Strategies of refinement concerning the keeping and the breeding of C57BL/6    Charlotte Sophie Leidinger
Rat early reactions on the empty and enriched environment    Györgyi Szabó, Andrea Ferencz, Gamal Eldin Mohamed, Daniella Fehér, Krisztina Juhos, György Wéber 
The need for proactive rehoming policies in the EU    Katy Taylor 
17. Replacement
KeratinoSens skin sensitisation test: Adaptation to animal-free culture conditions    Nathalie Belot, Bushra Sim, Matthew Field, Carol Barker-Treasure 
BlueScreenTM AF (animal-free) - The first truly animal-free in vitro test for human genotoxicity   Nathalie Belot, Bushra Sim, Matthew Field, Matthew Tate, Louise Birrell, Carol Barker-Treasure
Non-animal replacements for acute toxicity testing    Kevin Coll, Richard Clothier, Nathalie Belot, Christopher Longmore, Suzanne Avey, Karl Bygrave, Carol Barker-Treasure 
The chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) as model for tumour-stroma interaction in human skin cancer can widely replace the mouse in cancer research    Nassim Ghaffari-Tabrizi-Wizsy, Corinna Krump, Ruben Errampalli, Gert Schwach, Angela Schweizer-Trummer, Marie-Therese Frisch, Birgit Reininger-Gutmann, Iris Zalaudek, Becker Jürgen C, Beate Rinner, Anton Sadjak 
Analysis of insulin mimetic phytochemicals with a complementary chick embryo model    Renate Haselgrübler, Verena Stadlbauer, Otmar Höglinger, Klaus R. Schröder, Peter Lanzerstorfer, Julian Weghuber 
Glutamate and hypoxia as a stress model for the isolated perfused vertebrate retina   Jose Hurst, Sebastian Müller, Martin S. Spitzer, Karl-Ulrich Bartz-Schmid, Sven Schnichels, Kai Januschowski
RTgill-W1 cell line assay for predicting fish acute toxicity: evaluation of a round-robin test    Melanie Knöbel, Scott E. Belanger, Pascale Berckmans, Mary Jo Bernhard, Ludek Bláha, Scott D. Dyer, Tina Haupt, Joop L.M. Hermens, Maria Therese Hultman, Heike Laue, Adam Lillicrap, Marie Mlnaříková, Andreas Natsch, Jiři Novak, Theo Sinnige, Knut E. Tollefsen, Hilda Witters, Kristin Schirmer
Holistic approach to risk assessment of chemicals for REACH purposes    Costanza Rovida
Cost-effective low-serum cell culture media for expression and purification of molecular motor    Marko Ušaj, Arnon Henn 
Human intervertebral disc as an efficient source for annulus fibrosus and nucleus pulpous cell isolation    Tomaz Velnar, Lidija Gradisnik
18. 3Rs in Academia & Education
Depletion of neural stem cells from the sub-ventricular zone of adult mouse brain using cytarabine    Tahereh Esmaeilpour, Amir Ghanbari, Hassan Azari, Soghra Bahmanpour 
CERST-NRW – a platform for developing human in vitro methods for (neuro)developmental toxicitiy testing    Janette Goniwiecha, Laura Nimtz *equal contribution, Maxi Hofrichter, Ellen Fritsche
Virtual physiology: Computer laboratories as alternatives in life-science education    Aubin Tchaptchet, Hans Albert Braun